•The Group which has invested in gold and copper, now invests in precious and base metals and high-value minerals of the low emissions future which include indium, germanium, tantalum, platinum group of metals (ruthenium, platinum and palladium), tellurium, cobalt, lithium, gallium, rare earth elements (REE), iron ore, manganese, aluminium, nickel, lead and graphite – which are needed for the development of cleaner technologies as they are used in batteries, wind turbines, solar panels and electronics systems in all kinds of controls – but also uranium (a naturally radioactive ore which can be recycled and from which nuclear energy is produced with CO2 emissions comparable to wind power, two times lower than hydroelectricity, four times lower than solar and 70 times lower than gas; similar to green hydrogen, pink hydrogen is made via electrolysis, but using nuclear energy as its source of power) and beryllium, is also supporting:
– technological innovations developed to support the energy transition, which make use of these various refined ores and metals:
• electric vehicles: cobalt, copper, lanthanum, lithium, nickel, manganese, graphite, zinc;
• fuel cells: platinum, palladium, rhodium;
• wind energy technologies: copper, nickel, manganese, cobalt, chromium, molybdenum, zinc, silicon, neodymium, dysprosium, terbium;
• aviation: titanium;
• photovoltaic solar technologies: silicon, copper, cadmium, indium, gallium;
•batteries: lithium, iron ore – Fe – and phosphate (LFP), cobalt, nickel, sodium.
Most of them require some Rare Earth elements: scandium, yttrium, lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium, promethium, samarium, europium, gadolinium, terbium, dysprosium, holmium, erbium, thulium, ytterbium and lutetium.
The Group also invests in silver, silica, bauxite (for aluminum), cassiterite/tin – used for lead-free solders, windmills –, coltan (columbite-tantalite)/niobium tantalum (tantalite) – used for Micro-capacitors, medical technology –, and wolframite/tungsten also known as 3Ts.
– the elimination of hunger and malnutrition, the agricultural development and the achievement of wider global food security which need:
• fertilizers with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NKP) contents such as urea, ammonia, ammonium nitrate, phosphate (DAP and MAP), potash (MOP and SOP), sulphur, etc.